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Perl Variables

$_ default input and pattern-searching space
$a/$b special package variables when using sort()
$ contains the subpattern from the corresponding set of capturing parentheses from the last pattern match
$& string matched by the last successful pattern match
$' string preceding whatever was matched by the last successful pattern match
$' the string following whatever was matched by the last successful pattern match
$+ text matched by the last bracket of the last successful search pattern
$^N text matched by the used group most-recently closed of the last successful search pattern
@+ arrays holds the offsets of the ends of the last successful submatches in the currently active dynamic scope
$* set to a non-zero integer value to do multi-line matching within a string, 0 to tell Perl that it can assume that strings contain a single line, for pattern matches.
$. current line number for the last filehandle accessed
$/ input record separator, newline by default.
$| if set to nonzero, forces a flush right away and after every write or print to the currently selected output channel
$, output field separator for the print operator
$\ output record separator for the print operator
$" like $, except that it applies to array and slice values interpolated into a double-quoted string
$; subscript separator for multidimensional array emulation
$# output format for printed numbers
$% current page number of the currently selected output channel
$= current page length (in printable lines) of the currently selected output channel
$- number of lines left on the page of the currently selected output channel
@- $-[n] is the offset of the start of the substring matched by the n-th subpattern. $-[0] is the offset of the start of the last succesful match
$~ name of the current report format for the currently selected output channel
$^ name of the current top-of-page format for the currently selected output channel
$^L what formats output as a form feed
$^A current value of the write() accumulator for format() lines
$? status returned by the last pipe close, backtick command, successful call to wait() or waitpid(), or from the system() operator.
$^[ENCODING] object reference to the Encode object that is used to convert the source code to Unicode
$! 1. numerically: yields the current value of the C errno variable 2. string: yields the corresponding system error string
%! each element of %! has a true value only if $! is set to that value
$^E error information specific to the current OS
$@ Perl syntax error message from the last eval() operator
$$ process number of the Perl running this script
$< real uid of this process
$> effective uid of this process
$( real gid of this process
$) effective gid of this process
$0 name of the program being executed
$[ index of the first element in an array, and of the first character in a substring
$] version + patchlevel/1000 of the Perl interpreter
$^C current value of the flag associated with the -c switch
$^D current value of the debugging (-D) flags
$^F maximum system file descriptor, ordinarily 2
$^H compile-time hints for the Perl interpreter (internal use only)
%^H same scoping semantic as $^H
$^| current value of the inplace-edit extension
$^M contents are a possible emergency memory pool Perl can use after die()ing
$^O name of the OS under which this copy of Perl was built, as determined during the configuration process
${^OPEN} inter variable used by PerlIO...
$^P internal variable (bits) for debugging support
$^R rresult of evaluation of the last successful (?{code}) regular expression assertion
$^S current state of the interpreter
$^T time at which the program began running, in seconds since the epoch
${^TAINT} reflects if taint mode is on or off
$^V revision, version, and subversion of the Perl interpreter
$^W current value of the warning switch
${^WARNING_BITS} current set of warning checks enabled by the use warnings pragma
${^WIDE_SYSTEM_CALLS} global flag that enables system call made by Perl to use wide character API's native to the system, if available (Windows only!)
$^X filename used to execute the curreny copy of Perl, from C's argv[0].
ARGV special filehandle that iterates over command-line filenames in @ARGV
$ARGV contains the name of the current file when reading from <>
@ARGV contains the command-line arguments intended for the script
ARGVOUT special filehandle that points to the currently open output file when doing edit-in-place processing with -i
@F contains the fields of each line read in when autosplit mode is turned on
@INC contains the list of places that the do EXPR, require, or use constructs look for their library files
@_ within a subroutine, contains the parameters passed
%INC contains entries for each filename included via the do, require, or use operators (key: filename/value: location of the file found)
%ENV current environment
%SIG signal handlers for signals
$@/$!/$^E/$? information about different types of error conditions encountered during execution of a Perl program




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